Alcoolul - Efecte adverse
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Alcoolul - Efecte adverse
Alcoolul si tutunul au patruns adanc in viata omului contemporan. Consumatorii de alcool si tutun, la scara intregului glob, se numara cu sutele de milioane. Implicatiile pentru sanatate ale alcoolului si tutunului sunt in linii generale cunoscute, dar nu totdeauna aceasta cunoastere are si suficienta forta spre a determina un comportament rational. Prin influenta deloc neglijabila pe care o exercita asupra starii de sanatate a omenirii, alcoolul si tutunul ridica o problema de ampla rezonanta, asupra careia se concentreaza fortele unui mare numar de savanti din toate tarile lumii. Intr-un mod desigur mult mai circumscris, aceeasi problema a atitudinii fata de alcool si tutun se ridica si in fata fiecarui om, luat in parte. Fapt este ca suntem cu totii necontenit supusi tentatiei din partea produselor alcoolice si de tutun, care ni se ofera din toate partile sub o intinsa gama de varietati, una mai atragatoare ca alta. 
 
Solutia? Prohibitia s-a vazut cat valoreaza, din experienta tarilor in care a fost incercata. A proclama abstinenta totala ar insemna de asemenea a veni cu o solutie falsa, incapabila de a rezista la realitatile vietii. De fapt, abstinenta nici nu corespunde unei veritabile necesitati decat in anumite cazuri de boala, cand interdictia statuata de medic devine categorica si nu poate fi incalcata decat cu pretul unor grave riscuri. Si atunci?
 
Raspunsul care pare cel mai valabil este ca problema, pe plan individual, are tot atatea solutii... cati oameni exista pe lume. Fiecare om are modul lui de viata, poseda particularitatile proprii numai organismului sau si care il deosebesc de toti ceilalti oameni. Aceasta inseamna ca fiecarui om ii revine sa-si rezolve (dar nu sa o lase nerezolvata sau sa o ignore) problema atitudinii fata de alcool si tutun, potrivit cu aceste particularitati si in primul rand cu capacitatea de rezistenta a organismului sau,
 
Asadar, in locul solutiilor standard sa ne multumim cu cateva criterii de orientare.
Alcoolul: pareri laice si opinii medicale
 
Stravechea folosire a bauturilor alcoolice explica formarea si perpetuarea prin traditie a unor pareri nu totdeauna conforme cu adevarul verificat stiintific, chiar daca uneori intrunesc un numar ceva mai ridicat de adepti. Sa incercam a face putina lumina in acest domeniu.
ESTE ALCOOLUL UN ALIMENT?
La aceasta intrebare vom da din capul locului un raspuns negativ si totodata ne vom pregati sa infruntam o obiectie aparent foarte puternica:
Bine, dar este perfect demonstrat ca alcoolul arde in organism, furnizand o energie echivalenta cu aproximativ 7 calorii pentru fiecare gram. Prin urmare, daca am baut un litru de vin de 10°, din cele 100 de grame de alcool obtinem 700 de calorii, adica tot atatea cat dintr-un litru de lapte, 8 oua sau 300-400 grame de carne.
 
Eroarea este flagranta. Laptele, ouale, carnea si alimentele in general aduc organismului un complex de substante nutritive proteine, lipide, glucide, saruri minerale, vitamine, care dau energie, servesc ca material de constructie pentru celule si tesuturi, asigura desfasurarea armonioasa a schimburilor de substante necesare functiilor vitale. Alcoolul nu aduce nimic din toate acestea. Este adevarat ca dupa absorbtia lui, care se petrece destul de repede, in special la nivelul intestinului subtire, alcoolul este in cea mai mare parte ars si numai 3% din cantitatea ingerata se elimina prin rinichi si plamani. Dar aceasta combustie are loc in conditii nefavorabile. Arderea alcoolului pretinde un surplus de vitamine, si de alte substante nobile, provocand carentarea organismului. Orice eventual aport energetic este anihilat de actiunea nociva exercitata de alcool, inainte de a fi ars, asupra sistemului nervos, ca si asupra totalitatii celorlalte organe si aparate. Apare deci justificata comparatia facuta de unii autori potrivit careia alcoolul este intr-adevar un carbune, dar un carbune prost, care pentru a arde are nevoie sa arda toata casa impreuna cu el.
 
SI TOTUSI, ALCOOLUL ESTE UN STIMULENT, EL INVIOREAZA, DA PUTERE DE MUNCA.
Fals. Pentru a fi definit exact, alcoolul este prin excelenta un toxic al sistemului nervos, iar actiunea lui este deprimanta, paralizanta, narcotica. In doze mari, alcoolul aduce cu el starea de coma si moartea. Daca vom privi un bautor cum zace sub masa, lipsit de cunostinta, vom avea in fata ochilor valoarea reala a alcoolului ca stimulent si reconfortant.
 
Iata insa ca si aici se iveste o obiectie :
Omul despre care vorbiti zace sub masa pentru ca a intrecut masura. Dar toata lumea stie ca un paharel da putere si curaj, ascute agerimea mintii si dezleaga limba, pentru ca actioneaza ca un excitant al sistemului nervos.
 
Este drept ca pana nu de mult se atribuia alcoolului o actiune excitanta asupra sistemului nervos. Pentru a intelege insa substratul real al starii de excitatie pe care o constatam la altii sau o resimtim noi insine ca un prim efect al alcoolului, sa ne adresam pe scurt fiziologiei activitatii nervoase superioare. La nivelul scoartei cerebrale au loc in permanenta doua procese: excitatia si inhibitia. Ambele sunt procese active si de echilibrul dintre ele depinde echilibrul intregului organism, in raport cu starea in care se gaseste (somn, veghe, efort etc.). Alcoolul nu intensifica procesele de excitatie, ci franeaza procesele de inhibitie, alterand echilibrul normal, fiziologic, dintre ele si facand in acest mod sa predomine excitatia. Dar slabirea inhibitiei inseamna slabirea controlului, mai intai in sfera neuropsihica, prima atinsa de efectele alcoolului. Este adevarat ca alcoolul dezleaga limbile, insa nu le dezleaga totdeauna in chipul cel mai avantajos. Omul este mai vorbaret, dar deseori, din pacate, uita sa mai fie politicos, devine vulgar, agresiv si incepe sa dezvaluie gandurile sale cele mai ascunse: in vino veritas. De la zona superioara a psihicului, influenta alcoolului trece repede la functiile psihomotorii. Rezultatul: pierderea indemanarii, a preciziei miscarilor si ceea, ce este caracteristic, lungirea timpului de reactie (prin timp de reactie intelegandu-se intervalul dupa care organismul este capabil sa execute gestul de raspuns corespunzator unei excitatii venite din afara ).
 
Aceasta din urma alterare explica de ce alcoolul este deseori de vina in producerea unor accidente de munca sau accidente de circulatie. De exemplu presatorul, care in drum spre fabrica s-a oprit la un bufet pentru a se aproviziona cu un supliment de putere de munca, va retrage mana, intr-o situatie de pericol, cu o fractiune de secunda mai tarziu, suficienta pentru ca presa sa-i zdrobeasca degetele. Prin acelasi mecanism se explica de ce un sofer, aflat la volanul masinii in plina viteza, va frana mai putin prompt, daca a consumat alcool, si intarzierea se va putea dovedi suficienta pentry a genera accidentul. In producerea accidentelor datorate alcoolului mai intervine si faptul ca pus in fata unei situatii neprevazute de pericol, cel interest face gestul obisnuit, automat, dar care nu se mai potriveste (V. Raymond). Pentru a evita accidentul, el ar fi trebuit sa faca nu o miscare automata, ci una noua, speciala, de aparare, elaborata pe moment de scoarta cerebrala. Insa, scoarta creierului, cazand prima sub actiunea toxica a alcoolului, nu mai este capabila sa reactioneze cu potentialul ei normal.
De notat ca toate cele descrise pana aici sunt urmarea unui consum relativ moderat, cuminte, care nu a apucat sa duca la tulburarile caracteristice starii de ebrietate propriu-zisa.
 
Se intelege, asadar, ca exigenta organelor de politie impotriva consumului de alcool la conducatorii auto este pe deplin motivata din punct de vedere fiziologic. La fel de justificata este severitatea antrenorilor fata de inclinatia la bautura a unora dintre componentii formatiilor sportive pe care le conduc. Cat despre parerea privind valoarea alcoolului ca stimulent al capacitatii de munca, ea poate fi clasata in toata linistea acolo unde ii este locul, adica in randul prejudecatilor.

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